History of the Abacus

The abacus has a very long history. It spans over thousands of years. The earliest abacus was invented about 5000 years ago. Some expert historians believe that the abacus was invented by the ancient Chinese. Still others are of the opinion that the abacus was invented by the Babylonians or by the Egyptians. However, all these claims are backed by historical evidence like archaeological excavations and ancient texts. It may be possible that many civilizations may have invented the abacus independently and roughly at the same time.

The first counting device was the human hand and the fingers. The reason why we use the decimal system is that there are 10 fingers (both hands combined) and so it is very easy to count if 10 is the base. Later on man started using natural objects and markings to count and calculate. Larger quantities [exceeding 10] could not be easily count on the fingers. So various natural objects like pebbles and twigs were used.

Merchants needed not only needed a way to count the goods that they bought and sold, they also needed a method to perform calculations. This was achieved with the help of counting boards. Until the advent of a proper number system, counting boards were very popular. The abacus has its origin in one such counting board.

Time line of the history of the abacus:

  • 3000 BC: An early form of abacus originates in the Orient
  • 1000 BC: Chinese start using counting boards
  • 500 BC: Romans and Greeks use counting boards
  • 300 BC: Abacus is widely used as a counting device in China
  • 500 AD: The abacus is used in Europe

How to Keep Children Busy When Traveling

Children are such a blessing and at the same time they are such a nightmare, it is difficult to imagine life without them and also difficult to understand how we go about the whole day with them. Their spirit and energy level never goes down, feeling tired or relaxing is not a part of their life at all.

When going on a vacation with children, especially in the age group of 2 to 8 years traveling to a destination is probably the most difficult part. These children are grown up to understand things and too young to be on their own. Confined to one small space in an aircraft, train or the car is just not acceptable to them and therefore they are likely to create nuisance all the way till you reach.

Here are a few useful ideas and tips which you could use to keep children occupied when traveling and leave have some peace. Like I already mentioned traveling is the most difficult time so one needs to make sure there are sufficient activities to keep them busy. The most obvious choice are story books but that in itself will not be sufficient, carry activity books for them where they do not just have to read but have to do some activity and therefore involved. Coloring is another good option and if the child is interested in sketching he could do some of that. Invent innovative games where you can also get the child to be creative like get children to express what they want to say by drawing or writing.

If you have more than 1 child then again it is a boon and a bane both they play together for some time leaving you free and also then get fighting like mad and make you go crazy as well. The most important part is to get them involved in some games like cards, Pictionary, spelling games or any other educational games. They will probably need to be adjusted else they might end up teething each others hair. Verbal games could have been created to keep them busy and involved.

Video games are all time favorites with children so they could play them for some time though not all the time as they lose interest very soon. You could carry portable video players to play their favorite cartoons or to listen to the music they like.

Try carrying their favorite snacks for them, when they are bored they can munch on chips and other such packed stuff which they love so much. It could also be as a prize when they win in any games.

It is not about buying new things for the children before going on a trip it is about remembering to pack things to keep them busy during the trip. The bottom line is to be innovative, create a game out of everything and make it fun and interesting for the child; This will not only keep them busy but also keep them away from trying out new activities which could be harmful for them.

Everyday Tips for Weight Loss

Whether it is for wedding season, festive season or just to be healthy, everybody wants to lose weight and look fit. Unhealthy lifestyles often include a lot of junk and oily food along with very little or no exercise. Sitting in your work chair all day can cause all the fat’s to accumulate in the lower part of your body, thereby concentrating on your thighs and hips. Flab in the hips and thighs is basically known as cellulite. Cellulite is firm and can prove pretty difficult to get rid of. Here are some tips on how to reduce hip fat:

1. Drink Water

This solution looks like it won’t make a lot of difference, but it plays a significant role in controlling your weight. There is a reason why all health experts emphasize on its importance. Water purifies your system and releases unhealthy toxins off the body. It also boosts metabolism, thus increasing the pace of your weight loss journey. It’s recommended to consume at least 8-9 glasses every day for one to stay healthy. You can also squeeze some lemon juice in your water for added benefits.

2. Reduce Sugars

Limit your consumption of sugar in the form of chocolates & sweets. Sugar is a direct form of fat and the primary reason that causes flabby hips. Replace your sweet cravings with fruits instead. Soft drinks and aerated drinks are just as much loaded with huge amounts of unhealthy sugar. Chucking these out absolutely is an easy way to lose weight from your hip area.

3. Exercise

One of the most important tips to reduce weight is exercise. Regular workouts are necessary for trimming flab and controlling fat accumulation. Exercises that focus on maintaining the cellulite in your body are generally more intense and require more efforts. You should ideally workout for at least 30 minutes every day. Your daily workout must subsume exercises like squats, sit-ups, crunches, lunges and hip raises in variety of counts and orders. These exercises concentrate mainly on proper shaping of your hips and thighs. They are highly intensive and should be combined with cardio regularly. Also, you can fasten blood circulation and boost metabolism, effectively burning fats by brisk walking, jogging and running.

4. Control Calories

Stay away from junk and processed food like the plague! They have very little to no nutritional value and contribute absolutely nothing towards weight loss. They are the superfluous calories that slow down your path to healthy goals. Make sure that your meals always include green, leafy vegetables to improvise your nutritional intake. It must also contain proteins and vitamins in more quantities than carbohydrates and sugars. Prevent snacking as much as you can. Don’t eat all the time, instead, eat fulfilling meals so that you can keep frequent hunger at bay.

5. Yoga

Stress is usually known to be a cardinal factor in weight gain. Yoga & meditation help in calming your nerves & stabilizing heart rate. If you are running short of time to go through a yoga routine every day, the least you can do is ensure doing a breathing exercise for a few minutes in the morning. A relaxed body is definitely a healthy body.

Fitness is going to be a long journey full of a healthy diet and exercise routine. Constantly keeping a check on what you eat and maintain of a proper workout regime is the best way to maintain healthy and recommendable weight. Hips may be a tough area to trim, but with the correct mindset, dedication & determination, a slimmer waist is all yours. So plan your fitness journey accordingly and go ahead to that wedding function or vacation with a fitter version of you!

Steps in Obtaining a Birth Certificate Copy Online

The Internet is a vast and truly wide repository of updated information, records, as well as archives of past data. In doing a search for public records online, experts note that the first crucial step towards quickly locating information about people, companies or personal data begins with gaining a thorough understanding of what defines a public record as well as private information. After gaining a clear overview of the limitations and scope of a public record search, you’ll find out how important this search mechanism is, especially in searching for information such as a birth certificate copy, among other sensitive and vital information.

In essence, personal or confidential data is considered as private and restricted information. Items such as date of birth, an individual’s Social Security number, insurance, medical, financial, as well as birth records are private by definition; however, online researchers note that confidential private data sometimes becomes public, which means that you may be able to locate or retrieve these types of records ethically and legally. This includes searching for a birth certificate copy.

The first step to do in finding birth certificate copies online is to type the name of the city/town where the person you’re looking for was born, along with the name of the county in the search engine. After this, locate the specific county register, by typing for example ‘county register/clerk recorder’. Once you get in the county registrar’s Web site, begin searching for the birth certificate. Once you’ve found the specific record, print out a copy of the certificate’s request form, fill the forms and read the instructions. Once you get the copy of the form, have it notarized and send it to the indicated address along with the required check or money order payment for the fees.

In obtaining birth certificate copies online, you should know that some US counties are so small that they may not have the required information posted on their web site. Should this be the case, and then call the phone number posted on their site for proper instructions. Online search records experts say that some counties will allow you to order a copy of you birth certificate online, and all you need to present is a valid credit card, as well as to fax the notarized request form to the county registrar. These days however, with concerns about identity fraud or theft, not all individuals are allowed to obtain certified birth record copies. The persons or individuals who are only allowed to obtain an authorized certified copy are the registrant himself or his/her parent and legal guardian. The individual or entity may also be allowed to obtain certified birth record copies online whenever this is mandated by a court order, or from a lawyer or a registered adoption agency that wants to obtain the person’s birth record copies in compliance with certain sections of the US Family Code. Law enforcement officials and representatives of a governmental agency are also allowed to access birth records, provided that they are conducting official business. Lastly, a child, sibling, spouse or grandchild of the individual may also be allowed to obtain copies of his/her birth records, as long as these persons have been properly authorized to do so.